# Контрольная работа Lesson 10

#### Задание:

**Контрольная работа №10 по теме «Наука и международное сотрудничество»**

**Task 1**

Use active vocabulary

1. A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical _____ based on the stimulated emission of photons.

a) expansion

b) amplification

c) enlargement

d) extension

2. The laser produces absolutely monochromatic light, of a _____ frequency.

a) sole

b) one

c) single

d) separate

3. Emission can be spontaneous or _____.

a) incited

b) energized

c) excited

d) stimulated

4. In laser ablation, a small volume of material on the surface of a work piece can be evaporated if it is _____ for a short time.

a) warmed

b) heated

c) inflamed

d) flushed

5. If _____ of atoms in the substance are in the excited state, a domino effect can arise.

a) sufficient

b) satisfactory

c) plenty

d) enough

**Task 2**

Complete the sentences using the correct word or phrase from the box.

1. Laser beams are employed as _____ in science fiction, but actual laser weapons are still in the experimental stage.

2. The light beam produced by most lasers is _____.

3. Most so-called _____ lasers actually produce radiation in several modes having slightly different frequencies.

4. Most lasers contain additional elements that affect the _____ and the shape of the beam.

5. The minimum pump power to begin laser action is called the _____.

a) emitted light

b) lasing threshold

c) weapon systems

d) "single wavelength"

e) pencil-sized

**Task 3**

Choose the correct option.

1. In 1990 _____ Europe's market for lasers represented about $128 million.

a) a

b) -

c) the

d) an

2. Every student is _____ pass exams every winter and summer.

a) to

b) for

c) at

d) -

3. _____ far back _____ in 1890 H. Wells wrote one of his most famous books "War of Worlds".

a) as, in

b) in, in

c) as, as

d) -, in

4. Scientific cooperation _____ "Intercosmos" programme is successfully being carried out by many countries.

a) on

b) in

c) at

d) for

5. _____new means of storing _____ information is called CDs and DVDs.

a) the, the

b) -, -

c) -, the

d) the,-

**Task 4**

Complete the sentences using the right form of the verb.

1. In the next few years laser (to become) one of the main technological tools.

2. Laser can (to produce) an intensive beam of light of a very pure single colour.

3. At present scientists and engineers (to work hard) to overcome technological difficulties.

4. What material (can, to treat) with a laser? Laser can (to vaporize) the hardest material.

5. The laser beam must (to heat) the fuel to the required temperature very quickly.

**Task 5**

Translate the sentences and state the function of the Infinitive.

1. **To vaporize** the hardest and most heat-resistant materials scientists have to create more powerful laser.

2. The aim of the scientists of this country is **to combine** two big technological discoveries of the last century - laser and thermonuclear reaction.

3. **To place laser** aboard the Earth's satellites new projects must be developed.

4. There is no doubt that in time laser beam **will work** in outer space as well.

5. **To encode** very complex signals one should rapidly change the intensity of laser.

**Task 6**

Translate the sentences paying attention to the Passive Voice.

1. The development of new substances __will be worked at__ by Russian and Japanese scientists.

2. Superconductivity __is acted upon__ by low temperatures.

3. This process __will be looked at__ as a random process.

4. The latest world achievements in the field of superconductivity __are written about__ a lot today.

5. A gas __may be looked__ upon as the vapor of liquid with a very low boiling point or very great vapor pressure.

**Task 7**

Translate the predicate expressed by the verbs **to cause, to make, to force**.

1. It is known that various defects in crystals **are caused** by convection.

2. Laser beam **makes** lead run like water.

3. The enormous power of nuclear weapon **forces** people be careful in its use.

4. The power of this tool **was caused** by vibration.

5. New optical systems **caused** changes in thin silica fibers of incredible transparency.

**Task 8**

Complete the sentences using the correct form of the word in capital.

1. The _____ of one of the mankind's oldest dreams is shown in lasers.

2. The designer _____ that this new laser installation should be tested at once.

3. The _____ of signal was very short.

4. The applications of laser in industry _____ in quantity and in quality.

5. Nowadays electronics and computer technologies are being developed _____.

1. FULFILL

2. SUGGESTION

3. DURING

4. VARIOUS

5. RAPID

**Task 9**

Read the text. Choose the correct ending for the statements according to the text.

Pierre de Fermat was born in Toulouse, France on 17th August, 1601, and died on 12th January,1665. He came from a wealthy family, and he studied law in Orleans. After graduating, he began to practise law and later he became a councillor in parliament. By 1652, he had become the chief magistrate of the criminal court - a very important and highly respected position.

In 17th century France, magistrates spent large amounts of time on their own. It was during this time that de Fermat worked in the field of mathematics, In fact, his devotion to this science was so great that he spent as much free time as he could working on mathematical problems and solutions. Although de Fermat published very little in his lifetime, he is still considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. His achievements in mathematics are quite astounding.

De Fermat's most important work was done in the development of modern number theory, which was one of his favourite areas of mathematics, and which had an important impact on the study of calculus. Sir Isaac Newton said that his own invention of calculus differential calculus in particular - was based in large part on the work of de Fermat, who had done his studies on calculus well before Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz were born. In 1654, Blase Pascal wrote a letter to de Fermat asking about the latest views on probability. Thus began a correspondence that became the foundation of Probability Theory, with de Fermat and Pascal considered to be the founders of this theory. Rene Descartes is famous for his invention of Cartesian coordinates and his important work La Geometrie. De Fermat had independently come up with his own three-dimensional analytic geometry, which was more complicated and advanced than Descartes'; Descartes' work became more popular, however, because its notation was moie convenient. Today, both scientists are seen as the fathers of analytic geometry.

De Fermat also made contributions in the field of optics, formulating a law on the way light travels. His methods were so advanced that many of his results were not proved for a century after his death, and de Fermat's Last Theorem took more than three hundred years to prove. De Fermat rarely provided his proofs, that is, evidence of procedures for reaching conclusions, to explain how he got his answers. In his letters to fellow mathematicians, he stated theorems but neglected the proofs, which was very annoying for them. Since he never wanted anything to be published (as he considered mathematics to be his hobby), there was nowhere for scholars to check his claims and consequently during his lifetime, he received very little recognition as a mathematician. If the people he wrote to had not saved his papers and letters, we may never have heard of de Fermat and his remarkable achievements.

1. Despite having little of his work published while alive, de Fermat ...

A. had a successful career in law.

B. is seen as a great mathematician.

C. held an important position.

2. De Fermat's work on modern numbers ...

A. was influenced by Newton's work.

B. helped him develop a branch of calculus.

C. had an effect on calculus.

3. Pascal and de Fermat...

A. are recognised as the fathers of Probability Theory.

В. communicated about analytical geometry.

C. produced work more advanced than Descartes'.

4. De Fermat's methods and results ...

A. were never proven in his lifetime.

В. were ahead of their time.

C. suffered as he never provided proof.

5. We know about de Fermat's work nowadays because ...

A. his work was published.

В. learned people researched his claims.

C. he left behind a correspondence.

**Task 10**

Write a letter to your pen-friend about modern technologies you use in your daily life. Ask him 3 questions on the topic.

#### Решение:

**Task 1**

1. b)

2. c)

3. d)

4. b)

5. d)

**Task 2**

1. c)

2. d)

3. e)

4. a)

5. b)

**Task 3**

1. b)

2. a)

3. c)

4. a)

5. b)

**Task 4**

1. will become

2. produce

3. are working hard

4. can be treated; vaporize

5. heat

**Task 5**

1. Для испарения самых твердых и самых жаростойких материалов ученым необходимо создать более мощный лазер.

2. Цель ученых этой страны - совместить два крупных технологических открытия прошлого века - лазер и термоядерную реакцию.

3. Для размещения лазера на спутниках Земли, необходимо разработать новые проекты.

4. Нет сомнений в том, что со временем лазерный луч будет работать и в космическом пространстве.

5. Для кодирования очень сложных сигналов необходимо быстро изменять интенсивность лазера.

**Task 6**

1. Разработка новых веществ будет проводиться российскими и японскими учеными.

2. Сверхпроводимость зависит от низких температур.

3. Этот процесс будет рассматриваться как случайный.

4. О последних мировых достижениях в области сверхпроводимости сегодня много пишут.

5. Газ можно рассматривать как пары жидкости с очень низкой температурой кипения или очень большим давлением.

**Task 7**

1. вызваны

2. заставляет

3. принуждает

4. была вызвана

5. вызвали

**Task 8**

1. fulfillment

2. suggested

3. duration

4. vary

5. rapidly

**Task 9**

1. A

2. C

3. A

4. C

5. C